Dietethics.eu

USA

Det Amerikanske Landbrugsministerium og Sundhedsministerium har følgende publikation som er publiceret i 2012.

Kan downoades from www.dietaryguidelines.gov.

Side 42

”Vitamin B12

I gennemsnit indtager folk på over 50 år nok B12 vitamin. Der er dog en stor del blandt disse der individuelt set har forringet evne til at optage B1 2-vitamin i dets naturlige form. Som krystaliseret er B12 dog nemmere at optage og man anbefaler derfor folk over 50 år at indtage fødevarer der er berigede med B12 f.eks. visse morgenmadsprodukter eller kosttilskud”

Også på side 49

”(…) veganer bør sikre sig tilstrækkelige mængder B12-vitamin gennem berigede fødevarer og kosttilsku”

Side 45

"Undersøgelser omkring vegetarers spisevaner.

Der er mange måder at leve vegetarisk på i USA. Veganere indtager ingen animalske produkter mens lacto-ovo vegtarer drikker mælk og spiser æg. Nogle mennekser spiser primært vegetarisk, men inkluderer små mængder kød, kylling eller fisk.

I prospektive studier af voksne , sammenlignet med ikke-vegetar kostvaner, har man fundet en stærk tendens til sundere spisevaner – færre overvægtige, mindre risiko for hjerte-kar-sygdomme og generalt en højere levealder. Flere kliniske undersøgelser har dokumenteret at vegetarer oftest har et lavere blodtryk.

I gennemsnit indtager vegetarer færre kalorier fra fedt (især færre fra mættet fedt); færre kalorier overordnet set og flere fibre og vitamin C. Vegetærer har overordnet set et lavere BMI. Disse ting og andre livstil faktorer der oftest hænger sammen med vegetarisk livsstil er hovedgrundene til at vegetarisk kost bidrager til en øget sundhed.

Side 52

”Vegetariske tilføjelser til the USDA Food Patterns

The USDA Food Patterns tillader fleksibilitet med deres tilføjelser til vegetarisk og vegansk kost, der udelukkende inkluderer vegetabilske madværer og til lakto-ovo vegetarer der også inkluderer mælk og æg. Disse tilføjelser inkluderer ændringer i protein madgruppen og for veganer i mælkeproduktgruppen.

Disse ændringer i protein madgruppen for en 2000 kalorie daglig kost er vist i tabel 5-3. Den veganske mælkeprodukt gruppe inkluderer kalcium berigede drikkeværer samt varer der oftest bruges som mælkeerstantning mm.

Anbefalinger for forskellige kaloriemængder er vist i appendix 8 og 9. Disse vegetariske variationer er alle sunde kostplaner, men de er dog betingede af berigede feodevarer. I den veganske version berigede produkter bidrager til en stor del af kalcium og vitamin B12 og man bør enten indtage disse eller kosttilskud for at sikre tilstrækkeligt indtag af de essentielle næringsstoffer.

Side 61

Vitamin B12 for forskellige Aldersgrupper

"Referencemål. = RDA

Børn 1-3 = 0,9

Piger 4-8 = 1,2

Drenge 4-8 =1,2

Piger 9-13 =1,8

Drenge 9-13 = 1,8

Piger 14-18 = 2,4

Drenge 14-18 = 2,4

Kvinder 19+ = 2,4

Mænd 19+ = 2,4"

Side 82

”Vegansk tilføjelser af USDA Food Patterns” Se nedenstaænde tabel"

APPENDIX 9. Veganske tilfoejelser til USDA FOOD PATTERNS [s. 82]

For alle madgrupper eller undergrupper, (a) anbefales et dagligt indtag a nedenstaænde mængdder (b). Det anbefalede viser indtag a groentsager og protein madgrupper ugenligt. For mere information og reskaber til at bruge denne tabel se MyPyramid.gov.

Calorie level of pattern (c)

1,000

1,200

1,400

1,600

1,800

2,000

2,200

2,400

2,600

2,800

3,000

3,200

Fruits

1 c

1 c

1 ½ c

1 ½ c

1 ½ c

2 c

2 c

2 c

2 c

2 ½ c

2 ½ c

2 ½ c

Vegetables (d)

1 c

1 ½ c

1 ½ c

2 c

2 ½ c

2 ½ c

3 c

3 c

3 ½ c

3 ½ c

4 c

4c

Dark-green vegetables

½ c/wk

1 c/wk

1 c/wk

1 ½ c/wk

1 ½ c/wk

1 ½ c/wk

2 c/wk

2 c/wk

2 ½ c/wk

2 ½ c/wk

2 ½ c/wk

2 ½ c/wk

Red and orange vegetables

2½ c/wk

3 c/wk

3 c/wk

4 c/wk

5 ½ c/wk

5 ½ c/wk

6 c/wk

6 c/wk

7 c/wk

7 c/wk

7 ½ c/wk

7 ½ c/wk

Beans and peas (legumes)

½ c/wk

½ c/wk

½ c/wk

1 c/wk

1 ½ c/wk

1 ½ c/wk

2 c/wk

2 c/wk

2 ½ c/wk

2 ½ c/wk

3 c/wk

3 c/wk

Starchy vegetables

2 c/wk

3½ c/wk

3½ c/wk

4 c/wk

5 c/wk

5 c/wk

6 c/wk

6 c/wk

7 c/wk

7 c/wk

8 c/wk

8 c/wk

Other vegetables

1 ½ c/wk

2 ½ c/wk

2 ½ c/wk

3½ c/wk

4 c/wk

4 c/wk

5 c/wk

5 c/wk

5 ½ c/wk

5 ½ c/wk

7 c/wk

7 c/wk

Grains (e)

3 oz-eq

4 oz-eq

5 oz-eq

5 oz-eq

6 oz-eq

6 oz-eq

7 oz-eq

8 oz-eq

9 oz-eq

10 oz-eq

10 oz-eq

10 oz-eq

Whole grains

1½ oz-eq

2 oz-eq

2½ oz-eq

3 oz-eq

3 oz-eq

3 oz-eq

3½ oz-eq

4 oz-eq

4½ oz-eq

5 oz-eq

5 oz-eq

5 oz-eq

Refined grains

1½ oz-eq

2 oz-eq

2½ oz-eq

2 oz-eq

3 oz-eq

3 oz-eq

3½ oz-eq

4 oz-eq

4½ oz-eq

5 oz-eq

5 oz-eq

5 oz-eq

Protein foods (d)

2 oz-eq

3 oz-eq

4 oz-eq

5 oz-eq

5 oz-eq

5½ oz-eq

6 oz-eq

6½ oz-eq

6½ oz-eq

7 oz-eq

7 oz-eq

7 oz-eq

Beans and peas (f)

5 oz-eq/wk

7 oz-eq/wk

10 oz-eq/wk

12 oz-eq/wk

12 oz-eq/wk

13 oz-eq/wk

15 oz-eq/wk

16 oz-eq/wk

16 oz-eq/wk

17 oz-eq/wk

17 oz-eq/wk

17 oz-eq/wk

Soy products

4 oz-eq/wk

5 oz-eq/wk

7 oz-eq/wk

9 oz-eq/wk

9 oz-eq/wk

10 oz-eq/wk

11 oz-eq/wk

11 oz-eq/wk

11 oz-eq/wk

12 oz-eq/wk

12 oz-eq/wk

12 oz-eq/wk

Nuts and seeds

6 oz-eq/wk

8 oz-eq/wk

11 oz-eq/wk

14 oz-eq/wk

14 oz-eq/wk

15 oz-eq/wk

17 oz-eq/wk

18 oz-eq/wk

18 oz-eq/wk

20 oz-eq/wk

20 oz-eq/wk

20 oz-eq/wk

Dairy (vegan) (g)

2 c

2 ½ c

2 ½ c

3 c

3 c

3 c

3 c

3 c

3 c

3 c

3 c

3 c

Oils (h)

12 g

12 g

11 g

14 g

16 g

18 g

20 g

21 g

24 g

25 g

33 g

40 g

Maximum SoFAS (i) limit, calories (% total calories)

137 (14 %)

121 (10 %)

121 (9 %)

121 (8 %)

161 (9 %)

258 (13 %)

266 (12 %)

330 (14 %)

362 (14 %)

395 (14 %)

459 (15 %)

596 (19 %)

a,b,c,d,e. See Appendix 7, notes a through e.

f. Total recommended beans and peas amounts would be the sum of amounts recommended in the vegetable and the protein foods groups. An ounce-equivalent of beans and peas in the protein foods group is ¼ cup, cooked. For example, in the 2,000 calorie pattern, total weekly beans and peas recommendation is (13 oz-eq/4) + 1½ cups = about 5 cups, cooked.

g. The vegan “dairy group” is composed of calcium-fortied beverages and foods from plant sources. For analysis purposes the following products were included: calcium-fortied soy beverage, calcium-fortied rice milk, tofu made with calcium-sulfate, and calcium-fortied soy yogurt. The amounts in the 1,200 and 1,400 calorie patterns have increased to reect new RDAs for calcium that are higher than previous recommendations for children ages 4 to 8 years.

h,i. See Appendix 7, notes g and h


NOTES TO APPENDIX 7. [p. 80]

a. All foods are assumed to be in nutrient-dense forms, lean or low-fat and prepared without added fats, sugars, or salt. Solid fats and added sugars may be included up to the daily maximum limit identified in the table. Food items in each group and subgroup are:

Fruits

All fresh, frozen, canned, and dried fruits and fruit juices: for example, oranges and orange juice, apples and apple juice, bananas, grapes, melons, berries, raisins.

Vegetables

 

Dark-green vegetables

All fresh, frozen, and canned dark-green leafy vegetables and broccoli, cooked or raw: for example, broccoli; spinach; romaine; collard, turnip, and mustard greens.

Red and orange vegetables

All fresh, frozen, and canned red and orange vegetables, cooked or raw: for example, tomatoes, red peppers, carrots, sweet potatoes, winter squash, and pumpkin.

Beans and peas (legumes)

All cooked beans and peas: for example, kidney beans, lentils, chickpeas, and pinto beans. Does not include green beans or green peas. (See additional comment under protein foods group.)

Starchy vegetables

All fresh, frozen, and canned starchy vegetables: for example, white potatoes, corn, green peas.

Other vegetables

All fresh, frozen, and canned other vegetables, cooked or raw: for example, iceberg lettuce, green beans, and onions.

grains

 

Whole grains

All whole-grain products and whole grains used as ingredients: for example, whole-wheat bread, whole-grain cereals and crackers, oatmeal, and brown rice.

Enriched grains

All enriched refined-grain products and enriched refined grains used as ingredients: for example, white breads, enriched grain cereals and crackers, enriched pasta, white rice.

Protein foods

All meat, poultry, seafood, eggs, nuts, seeds, and processed soy products. Meat and poultry should be lean or low-fat and nuts should be unsalted. Beans and peas are considered part of this group as well as the vegetable group, but should be counted in one group only.

Dairy

All milks, including lactose-free and lactose-reduced products and fortified soy beverages, yogurts, frozen yo-gurts, dairy desserts, and cheeses. Most choices should be fat-free or low-fat. Cream, sour cream, and cream cheese are not included due to their low calcium content.

b. Food group amounts are shown in cup (c) or ounce-equivalents (oz-eq). Oils are shown in grams (g). Quantity equivalents for each food group are:

Grains, 1 ounce-equivalent is: 1 one-ounce slice bread; 1 ounce uncooked pasta or rice; ½ cup cooked rice, pasta, or cereal; 1 tortilla (6" diameter); 1 pancake (5" diameter); 1 ounce ready-to-eat cereal (about 1 cup cereal flakes).

Vegetables and fruits, 1 cup equivalent is: 1 cup raw or cooked vegetable or fruit; ½ cup dried vegetable or fruit; 1 cup vegetable or fruit juice; 2 cups

leafy salad greens.

Protein foods, 1 ounce-equivalent is: 1 ounce lean meat, poultry, seafood; 1 egg; 1 Tbsp peanut butter; ½ ounce nuts or seeds. Also, ¼ cup cooked beans or peas may also be counted as 1 ounce-equivalent.

Dairy, 1 cup equivalent is: 1 cup milk, fortified soy beverage, or yogurt; 1½ ounces natural cheese (e.g., cheddar); 2 ounces of processed cheese (e.g., American).

c. See Appendix 6 for estimated calorie needs per day by age, gender, and physical activity level. Food intake patterns at 1,000, 1,200, and 1,400 calories meet the nutritional needs of children ages 2 to 8 years. Patterns from 1,600 to 3,200 calories meet the nutritional needs of children ages 9 years and older and adults. If a child ages 4 to 8 years needs more calories and, therefore, is following a pattern at 1,600 calories or more, the recommended amount from the dairy group can be 2½ cups per day. Children ages 9 years and older and adults should not use the 1,000, 1,200, or 1,400 calorie patterns.

d. Vegetable and protein foods subgroup amounts are shown in this table as weekly amounts, because it would be difficult for consumers to select foods from all subgroups daily.

e. Whole-grain subgroup amounts shown in this table are minimums. More whole grains up to all of the grains recommended may be selected, with offsetting decreases in the amounts of enriched refined grains.

f. The amount of dairy foods in the 1,200 and 1,400 calorie patterns have increased to reflect new RDAs for calcium that are higher than previous recommendations for children ages 4 to 8 years.

g. Oils and soft margarines include vegetable, nut, and fish oils and soft vegetable oil table spreads that have no trans fats.

h. SoFAS are calories from solid fats and added sugars. The limit for SoFAS is the remaining amount of calories in each food pattern after selecting the specified amounts in each food group in nutrient-dense forms (forms that are fat-free or low-fat and with no added sugars). The number of SoFAS is lower in the 1,200, 1,400, and 1,600 calorie patterns than in the 1,000 calorie pattern. The nutrient goals for the 1,200 to 1,600 calorie patterns are higher and require that more calories be used for nutrient-dense foods from the food groups.


APPENDIX 6. ESTIMATED CALORIE NEEDS PER DAY BY AGE, GENDER, AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVEL (DETAILED) [p. 78]

Estimated amounts of caloriesa needed to maintain calorie balance for various gender and age groups at three different levels of physical activity. The estimates are rounded to the nearest 200 calories. An individual’s calorie needs may be higher or lower than these average estimates.

Gender/

Activity level (b)

Male/ Sedentary

Male/

Moderately Active

Male/

Active

Female (c) /

Sedentary

Female (c) /

Moderately Active

Female (c) /

Active

Age (years)

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

3

1200

1400

1400

1000

1200

1400

4

1200

1400

1600

1200

1400

1400

5

1200

1400

1600

1200

1400

1600

6

1400

1600

1800

1200

1400

1600

7

1400

1600

1800

1200

1400

1600

8

1400

1600

2000

1400

1600

1800

9

1600

1800

200

1400

1600

1800

10

1600

1800

2200

1400

1800

2000

11

1800

2000

2200

1600

1800

2000

12

1800

2200

2400

1600

2000

2200

13

2000

2200

2600

1600

2000

2200

14

2000

2400

2800

1800

2000

2400

15

2200

2600

3000

1800

2000

2400

16

2400

2800

3200

1800

2000

2400

17

2400

2800

3200

1800

2000

2400

18

2400

2800

3200

1800

2000

2400

19-20

2600

2800

3000

2000

2200

2400

21-25

2400

2800

3000

2000

2200

2400

26-30

2400

2600

3000

1800

2000

2400

31-35

2400

2600

3000

1800

2000

2200

36-40

2400

2600

2800

1800

2000

2200

41-45

2200

2600

2800

1800

2000

2200

46-50

2200

2400

2800

1800

2000

2200

51-55

2200

2400

2800

1600

1800

2200

56-60

2200

2400

2600

1600

1800

2200

61-65

2000

2400

2600

1600

1800

2000

66-70

2000

2200

2600

1600

1800

2000

71-75

2000

2200

2600

1600

1800

2000

76 +

2000

2200

2400

1600

1800

2000

a. Based on Estimated Energy Requirements (EER) equations, using reference heights (average) and reference weights (healthy) for each age-gender group. For children and adolescents, reference height and weight vary. For adults, the reference man is 5 feet 10 inches tall and weighs 154 pounds. The reference woman is 5 feet 4 inches tall and weighs 126 pounds. EER equations are from the Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Washington (DC): The National Academies Press; 2002.

b. Sedentary means a lifestyle that includes only the light physical activity associated with typical day-to-day life. Moderately active means a lifestyle that includes physical activity equivalent to walking about 1.5 to 3 miles per day at 3 to 4 miles per hour, in addition to the light physical activity associated with typical day-to-day life. Active means a lifestyle that includes physical activity equivalent to walking more than 3 miles per day at 3 to 4 miles per hour, in addition to the light physical activity associated with typical day-to-day life.

c. Estimates for females do not include women who are pregnant or breastfeeding.

 

Source: Britten P, Marcoe K, Yamini S, Davis C. Development of food intake patterns for the MyPyramid Food Guidance System. J Nutr Educ Behav 2006;38(6 Suppl):S78-S92.

 

 

Source: www.dietaryguidelines.gov